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The Nature of Leadership     
Definitions of Leadership     
Leadership Effectiveness     
Overview of Major Research Approaches      
Level of Conceptualization for Leadership      
Other Bases for Comparing Leadership Theories     
The Nature of Managerial Work     
Typical Activity Patterns in Managerial Work     
The Content of Managerial Work     
A Theory of Demands, Constraints, and Choices     
Research on Situational Determinants     
Changes in the Nature of Managerial Work     
How Much Discretion Do Managers Have?     
Limitations of the Descriptive Research      
Applications for Managers     
Case: Acme Manufacturing Company     
Perspectives on Effective Leadership Behaviour     
Ohio State Leadership Studies     
Michigan Leadership Studies     
Limitations of Survey Research     
Experiments on Task and Relations Behaviour      
Research Using Critical Incidents     
The High-High Leader     
Leadership Behaviour Taxonomies     
Specific Task Behaviours     
Specific Relations Behaviours     
Evaluation of the Behaviour Approach      
Case: Consolidated Products     
Case: Air Force Supply Squadron      
Participative Leadership, Delegation, and Empowerment     
Nature of Participative Leadership     
Consequences of Participative Leadership    
Research on Effects of Participative Leadership     
Normative Decision Model     
Applications: Guidelines for Participative Leadership      
Applications: Guidelines for Delegating      
Perceived Empowerment      
Case: Echo Electronics     
Case: Alvis Corporation      
Dyadic Role Making, Attributions, and Followership     
Leader-Member Exchange Theory     
Leader Attributions About Subordinates      
Applications: Correcting Performance Deficiencies      
Follower Attributions and Implicit Theories      
Impression Management     
Follower Contributions to Effective Leadership      
Applications: Guidelines for Followers     
Integrating Leader and Follower Roles      
Case: Cromwell Electronics      
Case: American Financial Corporation      
Power and Influence     
Conceptions of Power and Authority     
Power Types and Sources     
How Power Is Acquired or Lost      
Consequences of Position and Personal Power     
How Much Power Should Leaders Have?     
Influence Tactics     
Power and Influence Behaviour     
Use and Effectiveness of Influence Tactics     
Case: Restview Hospital     
Case: Sporting Goods Store     
Managerial Traits and Skills
Nature of Traits and Skills     
Research on Leader Traits and Skills      
Managerial Traits and Effectiveness      
Managerial Skills and Effectiveness     
Other Relevant Competencies     
Situational Relevance of Skills      
Evaluation of the Trait Research      
Applications for Managers     
Case: The Intolerable Boss     
Case: National Products     
Early Contingency Theories of Effective Leadership     
LPC Contingency Model     
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership     
Situational Leadership Theory     
Leadership Substitutes Theory     
Multiple-Linkage Model     
Cognitive Resources Theory     
General Evaluation of Contingency Theories     
Applications for Managers     
Case: Foreign Auto Shop      263
Charismatic and Transformational Leadership     
Two Early Theories    
Attribution Theory of Charismatic Leadership     
Self-Concept Theory of Charismatic Leadership     
Other Conceptions of Charisma     
Consequences of Charismatic Leadership     
Transformational Leadership     
Research Methods for Assessing the Theories     
Transformational vs. Charismatic Leadership     
Evaluation of the Theories     
Applications: Guidelines for Leaders     
Case: Metro Bank     
Case: Astro Airlines     
Leading Change in Organizations     
Change Processes in Organizations      
Influencing Organization Culture      
Developing a Vision     
Implementing Change     
Applications: Guidelines for Leading Change     
Innovation and Organizational Learning     
Applications: Guidelines for Increasing Learning and Innovation      
Case: Falcon Computer Company          
Case: Ultimate Office Products    
Leadership in Teams and Decision Groups     
The Nature of Teams     
Determinants of Team Performance     
Leadership in Different Types of Teams     
Procedures for Facilitating Team Learning     
Applications: Guidelines for Team Building     
Decision Making in Groups     
Leadership Functions in Meetings     
Applications: Guidelines for Leading Meetings     
Case: Southwest Engineering Services     
Case: Building Maintenance Inc
Strategic Leadership by Executives       
Constraints on Executives     
Biased Attributions About Chief Executives     
Research on Effects of Leadership Succession     
Evolutionary Change and Strategic Leadership     
Political Power and Strategic Leadership     
Executive Tenure and Strategic Leadership     
Executive Teams     
How Leaders Influence Organizational Performance     
Monitoring the Environment     
Formulating Strategy      
Case: Columbia Corporation     
Case: Turnaround at Nissan     
Developing Leadership Skills     
Leadership Training Programs     
Designing Effective Training     
Special Techniques for Leadership Training     
Learning from Experience     
Developmental Activities     
Self-Help Activities     
Facilitating Conditions for Development     
A Systems Perspective on Leadership Development     
Case: Federated Industries     
Ethical Leadership and Diversity     
Ethical Leadership     
Gender and Leadership     
Leadership in Different Cultures     
Managing Diversity     
Case: Madison, Jones, and Conklin     
Summing Up
Major Findings in Leadership Research      
Toward an Integrating Conceptual Framework      
Biases in the Conceptualization of Leadership     
Issues About Research Methods
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